Subspecialty Clinics Offered at MINDS

At MINDS, patients are seen within defined subspecialty clinics co-managed by physicians and nurse practitioners. Currently, there are subspecialty clinics for Concussion, Headache, Women’s Neurology and Neurology of Pregnancy, Epilepsy, Stroke, Movement Disorders, Neuromuscular Disorders, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Neuro-otology (dizziness and balance).

Doctors and patient talking about therapy.

Specialty Clinics

The majority of neurologic disorders are evaluated within our specialty clinics. There may be instances for which further referrals to academic hospitals may become necessary after an initial evaluation.

Headache and Concussion

Headache is a pain that occurs anywhere in the head. Its quality may arise as sharp, throbbing, or dull. The onset may be sudden or gradual, and its course may range from less than an hour to several days. Migraine consists of a pulsing sensation or a severe, throbbing pain on one side of the head. It often happens with nausea, vomiting, and extreme light/sound sensitivity. For some, it also occurs with visual disturbances, tingling sensation, or speech difficulty. Concussion is defined as a traumatic brain injury that results in brain dysfunctions, which are typically caused by an impact to the head due to falls or contact sport injuries. Although effects of headaches are temporary, they could lead to headaches and difficulties with balance, coordination, and executive functions.

Adult Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, caused by abnormal brain activity that results in seizures, loss of consciousness, or periods of unusual behaviours and sensations. Generally, at least two unprovoked seizures are required for a diagnosis of epilepsy. This is a condition that affects all genders, races, ethnic backgrounds, and ages. Its symptoms also vary greatly across the board: some experience seconds of blank-stares, while others have repetitive twitches of the arms or legs.


The study of visual problems (sight or eye movements) in relation to neurological disorders. Some common causes include tumour, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. One of the goals of neuro-ophthalmology consultations and investigations is to differentiate the origin of visual disturbances, which may be arising from the central nervous system or the ocular system.

Neuromuscular Disorders

They encompass the dysfunctions of the central/peripheral nervous system, the muscular system, as well as the connections between the nerves and the muscles. Some common symptoms include numbness, tingling, pain, muscle weakness, and muscle cramps.


Stroke occurs when the blood circulation in parts of the brain becomes reduced or interrupted, leading to a blockage of oxygen and nutrients to the brain tissue. This can result in the death of brain cells in mere minutes. Transient ischemic attack (TIA), often called a mini-stroke, describes a temporary manifestation of symptoms similar to that of stroke. It only lasts a few minutes and does not result in permanent damage. However, it can serve as a warning for future likelihood of stroke events.

Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders

Movement disorders describe a group of neurological conditions that cause abnormal voluntary or involuntary movements. Some common types include chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, and restless leg syndrome. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological movement disorder. The onset of its symptoms is gradual: it may start with a light tremor of the hand, lack of facial expression, changes in speech production, and stiffness in bodily movement. Parkinson’s disease is a manageable condition through medications, physical rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery.

Women’s Neurology and Neurology of Pregnancy

Women face unique challenges as they navigate through contraceptive use, pregnancy, and childbirth. Likewise, women with neurological illnesses should receive special considerations of their conditions during these significant life events. Our subspecialty clinic treat and manage the following conditions in women: epilepsy, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neurological complications with tumours, and more.

Balance and Dizziness

Imbalance occurs with experiences of dizziness, unsteadiness, or vertigo (“feel like the surrounding is spinning”). Most balance issues can result from a dysfunction of the vestibular (inner ear), joint, muscular, or nervous systems.