Symptoms and Signs

Depending on the type, seizure signs and symptoms can vary from mild to severe:

  • staring spell, or “blanking out”loss of consciousness or awareness
  • temporary confusion
  • uncontrollable jerking movements of arms and legs
  • cognitive or emotional changes (e.g. fear, anxiety, deja vu)

senior woman lying on the ground after falling down from the sunburn,heat stroke,sunny day in summer hot weather,daughter care help support her elderly mother with faint,dizzy,syncope


While epilepsy is the most common cause, seizures can also be caused or triggered by:

  • High fever (can be associated with an infection)
  • Lack of sleep
  • Flashing lights, moving patterns, or visual stimulants
  • Low blood sodium (can occur with diuretic therapy)
  • Medications that lower seizure threshold: e.g. certain pain relievers, antidepressants, or smoking cessation therapies
  • Head trauma that results in brain bleeds
  • Abnormal blood vessels in the brain
  • Autoimmune disorders: e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumour
  • Use of illicit or recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, cocaine)
  • Alcohol misuse (during extreme intoxication or time of withdrawal)
  • COVID-19 virus infection